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An area of interest.

Discussion in 'Current & Military Affairs Discussion Forum.' started by Rover, Sep 29, 2017.

  1. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    US soldier killed, five wounded in 'enemy attack' in Somalia

    US troops alongside Somali and Kenyan forces came under fire during operation against al-Shabab in Jubaland.

    2 hours ago


    A US special operations soldier has been killed and five military personnel - including four American service members - wounded in an "enemy attack" in southwestern Somalia, according to US officials.

    The US military's Africa Command said in a statement on Friday that the attack occurred in Jubaland, where a large force comprising about 800 Somali, Kenyan and US troops were conducting an operation against al-Shabab fighters.

    The multinational force "came under mortar and small-arms fire at approximately 2:45pm Mogadishu time [11:45 GMT], killing one US service member and injuring four US service members and one partner force member," the US military's Africa Command said in a statement.

    The statement did not clarify whether the "partner force member" was part of the Somali or Kenyan armed forces.

    The armed group al-Shabaab has claimed responsibility for the attack, according to the Reuters news agency.

    Although one of the wounded Americans did not receive additional care after being treated in the field, the other three and the wounded local soldier were medically evacuated for follow-up care.

    The troops had been on a mission to clear al-Shabab from contested areas as well as villages the armed group's fighters controlled "and establish a permanent combat outpost" to expand the reach of the Somali state, the US military's Africa Command said.

    Al Jazeera's Rosiland Jordan, reporting from Washington, DC, said about 500 US troops are deployed in Somalia, including highly-trained special forces and Navy Seals.


    "This attack comes just as the US military and the White House are reconsidering whether there should be as many special forces, not just in Somalia but in sub-Saharan Africa, because Washington is looking at trying to perhaps shore up its defences in other parts of the world where they see some sort of security threat from Russia and China," she added.

    Al-Shabab, an al-Qaeda-linked armed group, is fighting to overthrow Somalia's central government and establish its own rule based on its interpretation of Islamic law in the Horn of Africa country.

    The group used to control most parts of the country, but since 2010, its fighters have been removed from most major towns and cities.

    In 2011, the armed group was pushed out of the capital, Mogadishu, by Somali troops backed by hundreds of soldiers from the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) after months of deadly street battles.

    But al-Shabab has continued to carry out deadly suicide bomb attacks in Mogadishu, while retaining a strong presence in other parts of the country.

    SOURCE: Al Jazeera and news agencies
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  2. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    Quick Evacuation in Somalia Firefight Shows Disparity in U.S. Resources in Africa

    By Eric Schmitt and Thomas Gibbons-Neff

    New York Times
    • June 10, 2018

      WASHINGTON — A medical evacuation helicopter reached five United States soldiers in Somalia on Friday roughly 20 minutes after they radioed that they were being shelled by Islamist militants, according to a military spokesman, a prompt response that underlines the disparity in American military resources spread across Africa.

      One of the soldiers, Staff Sgt. Alexander W. Conrad, 26, of Chandler, Ariz., who was identified by the Pentagon on Saturday, died from his injuries shortly after he arrived at an American base in Kismayo, a town about 225 miles southwest of Mogadishu. The four other Americans were wounded in the attack by the militant group the Shabab.

      The response to the firefight stood in stark contrast to the one after a bloody ambush in October on the Niger-Mali border in West Africa, when it took more than four hours to evacuate the wounded.

      American troops have found themselves fighting militants affiliated with the Islamic State and Al Qaeda in several countries on the African continent.

      The roughly 500 American troops in Somalia — stationed at a small constellation of bases throughout the East African nation — have been training and fighting alongside local troops there for more than a decade. They are now buttressed by invigorated airstrike authorities under the Trump administration.

      Until recently, Special Operations troops in Somalia had been fighting a noticeably different war from their counterparts in West Africa, one constrained by a smaller geography and the longtime presence of extremist groups.

      For any large operation like the one in Somalia on Friday, Special Operations troops routinely pre-stage medical evacuation helicopters and have armed air support.

      By contrast, in the October ambush in Niger, which was led by more than 50 militants from the group known as the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara, the troops relied on contracted medical evacuation that is not as capable as the military’s. The only armed air support arrived by way of French fighter jets, more than an hour after the gun battle started.

      The Americans’ vehicles were lightly armored pickup trucks and a sport utility vehicle. Four American soldiers died in the ambush.

      During a seven-month investigation into the attack, led by officials from the Pentagon’s Africa Command, the Special Operations general in charge of American commandos in Africa issued a series of orders that roughly mirrored the actions in Somalia, putting in place stringent guidelines to ensure that those on the ground had the proper support before leaving on a mission.

      The lower-level commands in Somalia and Niger, however, are different. In West Africa, Special Operations forces are overseen by Army Special Forces, while the Naval Special Warfare Command, often known as the Navy SEALs, leads operations in Somalia.

      The attack on Friday came toward the end of a days long operation in which a team of Green Berets from the Third Special Forces Group — the same unit that fought in the ambush in Niger — worked to clear several villages from Shabab control alongside 800 local troops from Somalia and Kenya. The American team, which numbered about 25, including civil affairs and intelligence personnel, had also helped with the construction of a combat outpost.

      According to Maj. Casey Osborne, a spokesman for the Africa Command’s Special Operations branch in Germany, the enemy attack was quick, giving the armed reconnaissance aircraft overhead little time to find the militants firing at the Americans. According to one military official familiar with the attack, the Special Forces soldiers had less than a month left on their deployment.

      The Shabab said in a post translated by the SITE Intelligence Group, which monitors online extremist message boards, that its fighters had attacked a joint American-Somali base near Kismayo, mounting what it called a “fierce attack.”

      Over the past year, the Pentagon has shown renewed concerns about the Shabab, which was responsible for one of the deadliest terrorist attacks on African soil when it struck a popular shopping mall in 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 67 people.

      American military officials worry that the group is growing once more, even after losing much of its territory in Somalia in recent years and being targeted by American drone strikes.

      Major Osbourne provided a timeline of how the firefight played out.

      At 2:42 p.m., the Green Berets reported that they were under attack, and five minutes later an American HH-60G Black Hawk helicopter left Kismayo to evacuate the wounded.

      The aircraft picked up three wounded American team members and one wounded African soldier, leaving the landing zone near the attack at 3:05 p.m. The helicopter returned at 3:18 p.m. to Kismayo, where the wounded were treated. Sergeant Conrad died soon after.

      The Black Hawk flew back to the battlefield at 4:52 p.m., retrieving another wounded American — one who was most likely in a more stable condition than his previously evacuated teammates — and arrived back at Kismayo at 5:21 p.m. At 7:22 p.m., an American C-130 transport plane left Kismayo with three wounded soldiers and the remains of Sergeant Conrad. It landed in Nairobi at 9:45 p.m., and the wounded were treated at a civilian hospital.

      “Our strategy in East Africa is to build partner capacity to ensure that violent extremist organizations, who wish harm in the region, wish harm on the European continent, and ultimately wish to harm the United States, are contained,” Gen. Thomas D. Waldhauser, the head of the Africa Command, said in a statement on Saturday.

      Sergeant Conrad deployed twice to Afghanistan, in 2012-13 and again in 2014, before completing French language training and being assigned to the Third Special Forces Group at Fort Bragg, N.C., as a human intelligence officer, someone who is trained to interact closely with local populations to learn information about militant groups. Much of the Third Group’s work is in French-speaking West Africa.

      His death was the second American combat loss in Somalia in the past 13 months. Last May, a member of the Navy SEALs, Senior Chief Petty Officer Kyle Milliken, was killed and two other American troops were wounded in a raid.

      Such medical support and on call Drone support tends to be missing on operations not involving US troops. The AU and Somali forces lacking in such ‘own’ assets.

  3. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    Somalia: Al-Shabab Militant Group Getting Lucky, Not Stronger

    21 June 2018

    Voice of America (Washington, DC)

    Somalia's most dangerous terror group is likely not getting any stronger despite a series of deadly attacks, including one that claimed the life of a U.S. special operations soldier earlier this month.

    The assessment, by U.S. military and counterintelligence officials, runs contrary to the conclusions of some analysts and comes as al-Shabab has been flexing its military might in recent weeks, highlighting attacks on both Somali and African Union forces.

    One of the most publicized of these was a brazen June 8 attack on an outpost under construction two kilometers north of the town of Sanguni, in the Lower Jubba region of Somalia.

    The al-Qaida-linked militants skirmished with a force of 800 Somali and Kenyan forces accompanied by U.S. special operations soldiers, one of whom was killed by mortar fire.

    US: June 8 attack was 'lucky shot' (Although ‘unlucky’ for some!)

    U.S. officials are still trying to determine the size of the al-Shabab force at the time of the attack but say there is no indication of any increased capability.(Although capable of taking on a force of 800+ is regarded to be expected?)

    "It was a lucky shot," a U.S. military official told VOA on condition of anonymity. "I wouldn't consider this a well-executed attack."(Although it would seem Al Shabaab achieved their objective by killing their enemy!)

    Another military official said, in many ways, the deadly attack was typical of al-Shabab operations.

    "Historically, al-Shabab has been willing to engage large forces, often using surprise and asymmetric tactics to improve their chances for success,"( How unfair of them!) said Lt. Cmdr. Desiree Frame, a spokesperson for U.S. Africa Command. "We expect to see more conflict in southern Somalia as Somali Government Forces, AMISOM, and their partners make in-roads into al-Shabab-held territory."

    Still, accounts from Somalia indicate the al-Shabab forces were not deterred by the presence of U.S. special operations forces using armored vehicles and armed drones, as the June 8 deadly mortar strike was part of a three-day long assault on the outpost that included a failed attack using a vehicle-borne bomb.

    "They know our movements," an official with the Somali forces in Sanguni told VOA Somali. "It's an open secret."(Perhaps also a better intelligence service than the US/AU forces!)

    Another Somali commander said al-Shabab also took advantage of the terrain, striking after recent flooding forced the Somali, Kenyan and U.S. forces to build the outpost in the open. (It’s called gaining a tactical advantage!)

    U.S. counterterrorism and military officials say there is no doubt the group remains the biggest threat to security in Somalia. But they have resisted attributing the increased pace of al-Shabab attacks to anything more than their annual Ramadan campaign.

    "We do not assess that al-Shabab has recently increased their capabilities or their willingness to engage their enemies," according to Africa Command's Frame.:confused:

    A senior U.S. counterterrorism official described al-Shabab's activity as routine,-banghead- noting its public statement "promote the virtue of waging jihad during Ramadan."

    Differing assessment of al-Shabab's strength

    Still, some analysts warn it is wrong to downplay the strides al-Shabab has made since being kicked out of its last urban stronghold, the port city of Kismayo, in 2012.

    "It's clear that we're not just seeing a spike in attacks related to the Ramadan campaign," said Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, a senior analyst at the Washington-based Foundation for Defense of Democracies. "It's clear that the organization has gotten stronger."

    And while Gartenstein-Ross thinks it is unlikely o_Oal-Shabab is strong enough to consistently challenge U.S. forces in the region, it has shown it can be potent against both Somalia and African Union forces in the area.( How many in a USSF team?)

    "They've been able to kill very high numbers and you didn't see that five years ago. They've been able to actually overrun bases at times," he said. "The danger is as African Union forces draw down, they may retake major urban areas. I think there's a good chance of that."

    VOA Somali reporter Harun Maruf contributed to this report.

    At times I despair of US reporting!:(;)
  4. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
  5. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    29th June 2018

    Shifting US counter-terrorism strategy plays out in the Horn of Africa

    US airstrikes in Somalia have significantly increased as a result of looser restrictions on the use of lethal force. Will these become an alternative for boots on the ground?

    Since President Donald Trump took office in 2017, the United States has significantly expanded the use of airstrikes in counter-terrorism operations. While continuing an Obama-era policy, Trump has loosened restrictions that his predecessor put in place. This relaxing of the rules of engagement is affecting operations across the board, from Afghanistan and Libya, to Pakistan and Yemen. In 2017, the US conducted more airstrikes in Somalia than the previous eight years combined.

    Under the framework set out by former president Barack Obama, called the Presidential Policy Guidance (PPG), use of lethal force outside of areas of active hostilities was only legal if the target was a ‘continuing and imminent threat’ to the US and if there was ‘near certainty’ of no civilian casualties. Action required high-level White House approval. Areas outside of active hostilities mean those beyond active US battlegrounds, which included Libya, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria are seen as areas of active hostilities for US forces. In practice, this policy was interpreted flexibly, but it did impose important constraints on the use of lethal targeted force.

    Escalation of airstrikes in the Horn of Africa

    The Trump administration has adopted its own rules of engagement known as the Principles, Standards, and Procedures (PSP). It makes two key policy changes. First, it lifts constraints requiring proof that a target is an ‘imminent threat’ and thus allows for attacks on a broader range of terrorist targets, including junior-level militants. Second, it relaxes approval constraints on US field commanders and weakens high-level vetting requirements. The consequence of these shifts is an increased use of targeted airstrikes.

    US Defense Secretary James Mattis, in an October 2017 briefing to members of the Armed Services Committee, underscored that commanders in the field now have greater decision-making authority and latitude to deploy lethal force against suspected terrorists. Notably, Mattis placed a greater emphasis on Africa as a counter-terrorism theatre, suggesting a more aggressive counter-terrorism effort on the continent.

    The Horn of Africa, especially Somalia, is a striking example of this shift in strategy. In 2017, the US carried out 35 confirmed strikes using a combination of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) and piloted aircraft – with up to seven strikes within a single week. In the first six months of 2018, 16 strikes were confirmed, compared to 14 strikes in 2016 and 11 strikes in 2015. President Trump’s March 2017 directive declaring Somalia as an area of active hostility expanded the scope for military strikes. The Pentagon, however, does not publicly acknowledge all strikes and operations in the country, making it difficult to know exact numbers. Reports suggest that there are around 500 US troops on the ground, although there is no confirmed figure.

    US counter-terrorism strategy in the region

    The US has a longstanding counter-terrorism presence in Somalia focused on rooting out al-Shabaab, an Islamist extremist group that poses a serious threat to the country’s weak central government. The Pentagon has stated that denying al-Shabaab a ‘safe haven’ is critical to mitigating potential attacks against the US or its citizens. The stability of Somalia and the region also affects US economic and energy interests, as the neighbouring Bab-el Mandeb Strait is a critical chokepoint for international energy flows and trade.

    The Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is also a threat in Somalia, and in November 2017 the US launched its first airstrike against the group in the country. The US counter-terrorism strategy also relies on US special operations forces to train and advise the Somali military in joint operations with African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) forces.

    However, the high price of having US troops on the ground was demonstrated again in early June 2018, when a special operations soldier was killed by al-Shabaab. Airstrikes provide an alternative to a comprehensive ground-troop deployment.

    Concerns around airstrikes

    There are reports of increasing civilian casualties resulting from airstrikes, and human-rights groups have warned of the serious consequences for the local population. Some see President Trump’s strategy as favouring a military response over diplomatic approaches. A diplomat with the US Mission to Somalia resigned in November 2017 due to what she saw as the United States’ failure to ‘demonstrate a commitment to promoting human rights and democracy’ and ‘ceding’ to the military the authority to drive policy. Since the previous US ambassador to the country stepped down in October 2017, the position has been left unfilled.

    Despite these concerns, the shift in policy and the clear preference by the Trump administration for a more aggressive approach to counter-terrorism will likely mean a continuation of escalated airstrikes in theatres such as Somalia in the short to medium term.

    Furthermore, the Pentagon’s review of special operations deployments to meet the rising threats from Russia and China may see a significant cut in forces in Africa. As a result, the US military may rely on airstrikes to make up for the gap in force numbers in its counter-terrorism operations.

  6. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    Exposing Al-Shabaab’s Leadership Structure and Precept Ideology

    written by David Goldman July 31, 2018

    The Al-Shabaab Mujahideen movement is an Al-Qaeda affiliate based in Somalia. Its leadership is a structure that comprises political hardliners, radical Islam adherents from Somali clans and foreign fighters, most of them drawn from Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, and Uganda. Although Al-Shabaab precept ideology originated outside Somalia, firstly it must be understood that Al-Shabaab militant group emanated from the Somali society and thus their ideology is principally part of Somali Islam for the past three decades.

    The militant group with primary goal in Somalia is to wage jihad to the Federal government and subsequently implement sharia law. Al-Shabaab operates majorly in Somalia but has set foothold in some East African countries particularly Kenya and Tanzania. The militant groups’ leadership hierarchy as far as the chain of command is concerned appears flexible.

    Al-Shabaab militant group comprises of multiple cells, units, divisions and figures each with distinct and diverse powers. In terms of hierarchical organizational structure of its leadership, Al-Shabaab is well organized with independent components drawn from separate regions. Based on research by Strategic Intelligence, vast OSINT, and CT literature reviewed by S.I, most adherents join the terror group for various reasons, one of them being socio-religious.

    It is fair to point out that, Al-Shabaab foot soldiers are primarily concerned with clan-related affairs and monetary gains promised at the time of their recruitment as opposed to the global jihad, thus socioeconomic factors play out as factoring becoming adherents. They are also prone to infighting and shifting alliances as witnessed in Al-Shabaab where a faction led by Sheikh Abdikadir Muumin shifted fealty to ISIS in October 2015.

    Research by scholars indicate that Al-Shabaab in Somalia seeks to exploit these vulnerabilities by manipulating clan networks and politics in order to retain power and destitute youths, continue to be easy fishing pool for Al-Shabaab recruitment and radicalization on promise of a better life fighting for a cause (jihad).



    Al-Qaeda’s influence on Al-Shabaab leadership and hierarchical structure is not clandestine or secret that the latter is linked to Islamists Al-Qaeda since their inception.

    • Al-Shabaab leadership comprises of Shura/Advisory Council. This is the topmost organ and inner circle that directs the overall strategy of the organization.
    • Sharia/Political – Responsible for issuing fatwas.
    • Military – Responsible for conceiving and planning operations, as well as managing training camps.
    • Finance – Responsible for fund-raising, and the concealment of assets. Also responsible for the acquisition of arm and supplies.
    • Amniyaat – This is the intelligence unit of the militant group tasked with gathering intelligence to fence their operations.
    • Information – the unit includes online media in charge of propaganda warfare of the group.
    Al-Shabaab leadership cannot be complete without notable leader; Sheikh Ayman al-Zawahiri, the de facto leader of the parent group, Al-Qaeda.

    • Ahmad Umar Ubeidah was named Emir on 6th September 2014. He is believed to have previously played a role in Al-Shabaab’s internal intelligence unit known as Amniyaat. Currently, intelligence reports indicate that he is on his deathbed after a long battle with a kidney complication and subsequent renal failure.
    Ubeidah had four deputies all whom are part of the powerful Shura Council.

    • Sheikh Ali Fidow. Intelligence reports show that he one of the possible successors and masterminded assassination attempts against Ubeidah forcing the leader to relocate to Gedo for 4 months, early 2018. Fidow is the head of Finance and administration hence presides over all the Al-Shabaab governors, making him the most powerful figure in the Shura.
    • Ali Mohamud Raghe “Dheere” alias Sheikh Ali Mohamud Rage alias Sheikh Ali Dhere. He is also current Deputy Emir and hails is from Hawiye Murusade clan. He is Al-Shabaab’s official spokesman.
    • Mahat Karate – currently he is the head of intelligence – Ubeidah’s preferred successor.
    • Maalim Osman – Currently the head of foot soldiers

    Other leaders

    • Fuad Mohammed Khalaf “Shangole” – He was the third-most important leader after “Abu Mansoor”. In charge of public affairs. Hails from Awrtabe sub-clan of Darod
    • Hassan Yaqub Ali – was official spokesman of the Kismayo administration and currently he is Waali (governor) of Gal-Mudug. He hails from Rahanwayn clan.
    • Abdirahman Hassan Hussein – leader (Governor) of the Middle Shabelle region
    • Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab – He currently Al-Shabaab military operations spokesman.
    • Muhammad Abu Abdullah (Al-Shabab, Al-Shabaab) governor of Lower Shabelle

    Al-Shabaab’s Precept Ideology

    • Establishment of Islamic State
    The Somali based Al-Shabaab’s main political ideology is to establish an Islamic state in Somalia. The militant insurgency group objective is to fight the federal government, overrun the Somalia and spill over its barbaric, unfounded ideology throughout East Africa. From there, they move towards the Central, South and Eastern Africa at large.

    Initially, Al-Shabaab pursued the formation of an Islamic Emirate in Somalia including the setting active sleeper cells in north-eastern region of Kenya and coastal regions of Kenya

    • Strict Interpretation and Implementation of Sharia law
    In the unlikely event they establish an Islamic State. Al-Shabaab aims at imposing strict version of Sharia law. Through its sternness witnessed before, its includes stoning, limb amputations, beheading, assassinations, crucifixions among those convicted.

    • Wage Jihad against the West and Foreign
    Al-Shabaab ideology of creating an Islamic State in Somalia is by extension wish to implement a sweeping Sharia rule and not limited to getting rid of foreigners.

    Al-Shabaab views allies of Somalia government as immediate enemies who deserves nothing but jihad. Kenya has suffered the retaliatory blunts of this ideology citing it has troops under AMISOM mandate battling the rag tag militia.

    Since 2007, Al-Shabaab has prepared, planned and orchestrated frequent attacks as part of its violent insurgency. The tactics included mortar attacks, suicide bombers, assassination, guerilla war, use of rocket-propelled grenades and firearms.

    Threat Intelligence

    Threat intelligence, also known as TI, is organized, analyzed and refined information about potential or current attacks that threaten an organization or a nation.

    The primary purpose of threat intelligence is helping organizations and countries understand the risks of the most common and severe external threats
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  7. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
    Islamist militant activity on the rise in Africa

    Written by defenceWeb, Wednesday, 11 July 2018

    Militant Islamist groups in Africa have been growing over the last decade, with violent events up dramatically since 2010, including fatalities. There are more militant groups than ever, but al Shabaab is responsible for most violence.

    The Africa Centre for Strategic Studies in late June published a snapshot of violent episodes involving Islamist groups in Africa since 2010. In the report, the Centre said that over the course of the past eight years, there has been a 310% increase in violent events (from 675 in 2010 to 2 769 in 2017). As these episodes include attacks initiated by security forces, this figure also captures the growing military responses to militant Islamist activity over the eight year period, the Centre noted.

    Violent episodes involving al Shabaab have comprised between 40 and 70% of all militant Islamist group activity in Africa since 2010, with al Shabaab responsible for 450 events in 2010 and 1 600 in 2017, far above the next most active groups Boko Haram and Islamic State – these both recorded 400-450 episodes in 2017.

    The number of reported fatalities linked to militant Islamist groups has increased 288% (from 2 674 in 2010 to 10 376 in 2017). This was punctuated by a spike in fatalities associated with Boko Haram in 2014-15, reaching 12 000 in 2015. The number of total fatalities has dropped by almost half since 2015. This decline is almost entirely due to the decline in deaths associated with Boko Haram, which caused under 4 000 deaths in 2017.

    The number of African countries experiencing sustained militant Islamist group activity has grown to 12, the Centre said, and this comprises Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, and Tunisia. In 2010, there were just five (Algeria, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Somalia).

    The number of active groups has also grown steadily. In 2010, there were five recognized militant Islamist groups operating on the continent: al Qaeda (in Egypt and Libya), al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), al Shabaab, Hizbul Islam, and Boko Haram. By end of 2017, the number was over 20.

    There has been a shift in the face of Islamist militancy in Africa over the last eight years. In 2010, it was largely dominated by AQIM and al Shabaab. Now it is shared with Boko Haram and the Islamic State (ISIS).

    Despite the fragmentation in the number of groups, militant Islamist activity has been focused in five main regions: Mali, the Lake Chad Basin, Somalia, the Maghreb, and the Sinai Peninsula. The increase in activity since 2010 has resulted in a more dense geographic concentration of attacks in the three sub-Saharan theatres. Meanwhile, in North Africa, the locus of militant activity has shifted from the Maghreb to the Sinai, the Centre said.

    http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.p...macy & Peace&Itemid=111#.W0ZYVbLwhBk.linkedin
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  8. Dvv63

    Dvv63 Well-Known Member

    Aug 12, 2017
    App Stage:
  9. JWJ

    JWJ Member

    Aug 28, 2016
    App Stage:
    Passed PRMC
    I've seen a bit of news about militant activity in Africa, though I'm sure the first a lot of people knew about there being even conflict was when the US patrol was ambushed and the media reported that.
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  10. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008
  11. JWJ

    JWJ Member

    Aug 28, 2016
    App Stage:
    Passed PRMC
  12. Rover

    Rover Moderator

    Oct 23, 2008

    Tends to be ‘Love Island’ and the exciting lives of various self proclaimed celebrities!o_O:cool:

    Not the stuff that tends to frequent my ‘in tray’.:)
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