Fueling for performance- part two (drugs andsupplements)

Broadsword55

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Drugs and Supplements in Sports:

Contamination of dietary supplements:

Keep in mind if you do use supplements that supplements are not regulated so can have anything in them. I'm not sure on the Royal Navy drug policy regarding them, if someone could point it out in the comments. I understand that a lot of steroids are class C under the misuse of drugs act 1971 so I imagine it may cause bother, someone tell me in the comments. Mod edit: Don't use them and keep in mind that on a western diet you consume more protein than you'll need even as a high level athlete.

• Failed doping tests
• Nandrolone and other steroid compounds and
precursors found in several dietary supplements
• Lack of legislation
• Supplements are not bound by the same standard of
quality control as food and drugs
• False claims on labels
• Many products wrongly claim to be athlete friendly
• Contamination is often not consistent with a batch of
supplements from one package
• Cross-contamination has recently been blamed
for many positive doping tests

Diet, lifestyle and training should all be
optimized before considering supplements.

Contamination of safe supplements:

1598867792430.png

Source: IOC doping laboratory Cologne, Germany

Research conducted by HFL Sport
Science and Lucozade Sport found that
10.5% of 152 supplements tested
contained prohibited substances not listed
on the label.
This equates to 1 in 10 supplements
containing prohibited substances that
could lead to a doping offence

Types of supplements

• Sports drinks
• Sports gels
• Cereal bars
• Sports bars
• Creatine
• Glycerol
• Glutamine
• Multivitamins
• Probiotics
• Bicarbonate
• Iron
• Calcium
• Antioxidants
• Glucosamine
• Colostrum
• Melatonin
• Ribose
• Echinacea

AIS sports supplement program:

• Supplement use led by athletes trying to
ensure they are not missing out on a
“performance edge” rather than sound
science
• Launched in 2000 to ensure AIS athletes
made good use of dietary supplements
• Ensure that supplement use does not lead
to an inadvertent doping offence

Classification system

Group A Approved or recommended for use by

AIS athletes

Group B Consideration for provision to AIS
athletes only under a research
protocol

Group C Supplements which have no proof of
beneficial effects and are therefore not
to be provided to official AIS programs

Group D These supplements should not be used by AIS athletes

Source: Australian Institute of Sport

Group A supplements

• Antioxidant vitamins C and E
• Bicarbonate and
citrate
• Caffeine
• Calcium supplement
• Creatine
• Electrolyte
replacement
• Sick pack
• Sports drinks
• Sports gels
• Glucosamine
• Bars
• Sports glycerol
• Iron Supplement
• Liquid meal replacements
• Multivitamins and
minerals

Group B supplements

• Probiotics
• Colostrum
• Glutamine
• HMB
• Melatonin
• Ribose
• Echinecea

Sports drinks

• Hypotonic

• 2-4% carbohydrate solution
• Rapidly emptied from the stomach and absorbed
through the small intestine (mainly for hydration)

• Isotonic

• 4-8% carbohydrate
• Equal balance of energy and fluid replacement

• Hypertonic

• Replace energy in fluid form
• 8-12% carbohydrate solution
• Sports drinks also contain

• 10-20mM sodium
• 3-5mM potassium

Home made sports drinks:

You can make sports drinks at home to aid performance and recovery in your training. Here is how to make them:

1598868071267.png

Sports gels:
• Highly concentrated source of CHO (65-70%) in easily consumed and quickly digested gel form
• More concentrated than sports drinks
• High cost alternative used in specific situations
• Pre- and post-event snack when regular foods can’t be tolerated by the athlete
• Gastrointestinal problems may occur due to concentrated carbohydrate load

Sports/cereal bars:
• Portable compact source of carbohydrate and protein for use before and after events where food can’t be tolerated or is limited
• Non-perishable food alternative for international travel
• Low residue option which will reduce the weight of gastrointestinal contents (making weight/before events etc)
• Often misused in replace of food sources

Creatine:
• Creatine monohydrate most practical form of supplementation
• Large supplementation increases muscle creatine by ~20% to reach threshold level
• Considerable individual variation (30% non-response)
• Supplementation “success” related to initial stores
• Co-ingestion with carbohydrate (50-100g) may enhance creatine uptake Creatine

:Situations for use in sport
• Developed elite athlete using a resistance program to increase lean body mass
• Interval and sprint training sessions where the athlete is required to repeated short explosive maximal efforts with brief recovery intervals :Concerns
• Weight gain of 0.6-1kg due to fluid retention
• Anecdotal reports of muscle cramping
• Potential adverse effects on liver and kidney function Creatine loading protocols

Rapid loading protocol:
• 20g daily, take in 4 doses, continue for 5 days
• Taken with carbohydrate meal or snack (50-100g)
• Maintenance dose of 3g/day

Slow loading protocol:
• 3g/day with CHO for loading & maintenance

Bicarbonate:
• Bicarbonate loading likely increases the muscle’s extracellular buffering capacity
• Able to dispose of excess hydrogen ions produced through anaerobic glycolysis
• Moderate effect on performance enhancement of anaerobic events
• Few studies within applied settings • Effects vary between individuals and events
• Generally considered in high intensity events lasting 3-7 minutes Bicarbonate loading protocol
• 0.3g sodium bicarbonate per kg body mass (~20g) 1 hour before event
• Consumed with 1-2L of water – prevent gastrointestinal problems
• Practice required in training to assess benefits and side effects
• Lower doses used between heats in events – experimentation on dosage • Possible concerns over interaction with other supplements (creatine & caffeine)

Carbohydrate-protein supplement • Greater muscle glycogen storage can be achieved after exercise with addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement
• 80g CHO
• 28g PRO
• 6g FAT
1598868643871.png

Graph from Ivy et al., 2002

Carbohydrate-protein supplement • Glycogen recovery appears to be most rapid in the fist 40 minutes after exercise and 2 hours after with the addition of protein • CHO-Pro supplement may be most beneficial during short recovery • Advantageous if minimizing CHO consumption is necessary

1598868695918.png

Graph from Ivy et al., 2002

Antioxidants – vitamins C & E
• Sudden increase in training stress leads to temporary increase in production of free oxygen radicals
• Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins may help reduce oxidative damage until own antioxidant system can adapt
• Benefits may be subtle & short lived
• No consistent evidence of performance enhancement
• May excessively increase iron levels
• May act as pro-oxidants if taken in excess

Antioxidants – vitamins C & E
• Daily dose of 500mg vitamin C & 500IU vitamin E
• 2 week dose suggested for athletes undertaking a significant increase in training stress or shift to stressful environment
• Altitude house training
• Competing / training at altitude
• Moving to hot environments or undertaking acclimatization training Multivitamins
• Athletes who restrict their total energy intake or dietary variety are as risk of inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals
• No evidence that vitamins improve performance except where a pre-existing deficiency exists
• Daily dose of Centrum multivitamin and mineral recommended by AIS
• May provide false sense of security to athletes who are eating poorly

Sick pack:
• Inconclusive evidence to suggest that vitamin C and zinc reduce problems associated with URTIs
• However, there is an indication that vitamin C and zinc may help to reduce the duration of URTIs and the severity of the symptoms
• 500mg of vitamin C and 50mg zinc to be taken 2/day for 5 days
• Should not be taken by someone with high ferritin levels

Substance groups:
• Stimulants
• Anabolic agents
• Diuretics
• Narcotic agents
• Peptide hormones

Examples of banned stimulants (banned in sports, coke and amps also illegal so don't think about them and a career in the naval service):
• Amphetamines
• Caffeine
• Cocaine
• Ephedrine

Effect of amphetamines on performance:
• Help alertness
• Decrease hunger
• Maintain concentration
• Increase sense of energy

Adverse effects of amphetamines:
• Additional strain on the heart
• Slow “come down” reducing concentration and lethargy
• Reduced immune function

Examples of banned anabolic agents:
• Dianabol
• Nandrolone
• Anavar
• Anadrol
• Stanozolol
• Testosterone
• Clenbuterol

Effect of steroids on performance:
• Faster recovery times
• Enable athletes to train harder
• Increased strength
• Increased muscle mass

Adverse effects of steroids:
• Stunt growth in youths
• Acne
• Hair loss
• Aggressive tendencies
• Liver problems
• High blood pressure leading to heart attack and stroke
• Erectile problems

Examples of banned diuretics:
• Bumetanide
• Canrenone
• Triamterene
• Acetazolamide

Effects of diuretics on performance:

• Decrease in performance
• Decrease in body mass through loss of fluid
• Decrease in concentration and decision making ability

Adverse effects of diuretics
• Fatigue
• Drowsiness
• Muscle cramps or soreness
• Diminished local blood flow
• Sensations of numbness or tingling
• Nausea or vomiting
• Mood or mental changes
• Headaches

Alcohol is a diurectic which means it causes you to urinate a lot more fluid than you should so do not drink alcohol after training without fully rehydrating or you'll lose your gains.

Examples of banned narcotic agents
• Methadone
• Diamorphine (heroin)
• Morphine
• Pethidine

Effects of narcotics on performance:
• The use of narcotics is usually limited to the relief of pain (analgesia)
• The side effects of these agents are usually tolerated to achieve continued performance when injured or returning from injury Adverse effects of narcotics
• Nausea
• Euphoria
• Constipation
• Loss of hand-eye coordination
• Possible addictive properties

Examples of banned peptide hormones:
• HGH (human growth hormone)
• Insulin
• Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
• EPO (erythropoietin)

Effects of HGH on performance:
• Increase in fat-free mass (connective tissue)
• Increase in whole-body protein synthesis
• No increase in muscle strength
• No increase in muscle mass

Adverse effects of HGH:
• Profuse sweating
• Deepening of the voice
• Overgrowth
• Diabetes mellitus
• Sleep aponia
• Accelerated osteoarthritis
• Impotence and menstrual irregularity

My advice keep that s*text deleted** out of your body. Next part of the series if there is any interest will be continuing on with sports nutrition which is quite interesting. If there is any interest I'll move on to how to do weights giving you some useful numbers to use which if you are unsure what you're doing will make training more effective and simpler and we might look at energy systems which are very important you understand the three of them to efficiently train.
 
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Chelonian

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No supplements are permitted in Recruit Training. Regardless of supposedly legal status and that they can be bought on the high street at Boots, Superdrug, Holland & Barrett, etc.

Anyone starting RT will have supplements in their possession confiscated.

If a Recruit requires medical attention at CTCRM the self-medication of supplements can cause an adverse reaction with prescribed meds.

On the topic of sports nutrition it has been stated on here previously that the Royal Marines have fuelled many thousands of Recruits on a carb rich diet supplemented with greasy sausages and burgers for over sixty years.
The diet may not be 'perfect' but it is adequate for purpose.
 

Broadsword55

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No supplements are permitted in Recruit Training. Regardless of supposedly legal status and that they can be bought on the high street at Boots, Superdrug, Holland & Barrett, etc.

Anyone starting RT will have supplements in their possession confiscated.

If a Recruit requires medical attention at CTCRM the self-medication of supplements can cause an adverse reaction with prescribed meds.

On the topic of sports nutrition it has been stated on here previously that the Royal Marines have fuelled many thousands of Recruits on a carb rich diet supplemented with greasy sausages and burgers for over sixty years.
The diet may not be 'perfect' but it is adequate for purpose.
Never have used any supplements and never will. Thanks for clarifying the position on them though. Even if they were not banned it would probably be I’ll advised to bring them for the abuse you’ll get I imagine. I’m just sticking up all my S&C coaching presentations that might be useful. *text deleted* all of it is useless in RT since you get told what to do for everything
 

The guide

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Some appalling info in this post that both incorrect and unfounded - 40 CDO has a steroid issue ??? really and where is this from ??.
You recommend being careful if you use them?? How about don't use them full stop. Apart from that you have copied a pasted lists. Think about your posts as this is so poor.
 

Broadsword55

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Some appalling info in this post that both incorrect and unfounded - 40 CDO has a steroid issue ??? really and where is this from ??.
You recommend being careful if you use them?? How about don't use them full stop. Apart from that you have copied a pasted lists. Think about your posts as this is so poor.
The 40 commando thing came from the navy forum: https://www.navy-net.co.uk/community/threads/steroids.48541/post-829627

bad source and probably shouldn’t have used it but I wanted something relevant. As for the information, I am against magic milkshakes, all supplements, vitamins and even eating extra meat to increase protein intake. This is just a presentation from when I was a S&C coach that we gave to coaches to make sure that they were informed as to how to protect athletes and detect steroid use. I made a few modifications to make it relevant but I am just uploading all my S&C presentations that are relevant to anyone wanting to train and doesn’t want a PT but wants to be informed. Obviously drugs and supplements are an unpopular topic so I’ve requested that it be removed and I’ll probably cease and disist posting further because as everyone points out it’s all pointless given RT tells you what to do
 

The guide

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Not wrong it,s a bad source , it is also wrong. A unit cannot test individuals independently. A commanding officer can flag up a concern and the RN /RM Police can interview , then and only then test said individual or CDT pays the unit a visit - but even this extract has totally unsubstantiated claim about 40 CDO with nothing to back it up, and more than that it is a post from 2009! Check your posts and source material if you are going to post something of this manner!! Will add part one was good and decent info and contained nothing that is not simple facts , it just where you elaborated that it went astray!!
 
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Broadsword55

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Not wrong it,s a bad source , it is also wrong. A unit cannot test individuals independently. A commanding officer can flag up a concern and the RN /RM Police can interview , then and only then test said individual or CDT pays the unit a visit - but even this extract has totally unsubstantiated claim about 40 CDO with nothing to back it up, and more than that it is a post from 2009! Check your posts and source material if you are going to post something of this manner!! Will add part one was good and decent info and contained nothing that is not simple facts , it just where you elaborated that it went astray!!
I’ll try not to make that mistake again. What I can report is that unlike the RAF and the army, the RN and RM had 0 cases of steroid use in 2017 which is the latest FOI available. I would edit it to leave only the vitamin stuff in hindsight and take off the 40 commando but I don’t think that’s possible.
 

The guide

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It should be possible to edit it!! You certainly have knowledge that can help the lads prior entry, so keep posting mate, I,m sure you will get loads of request s for advice and S&C can play a major part of pre-entry
 

Broadsword55

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It should be possible to edit it!! You certainly have knowledge that can help the lads prior entry, so keep posting mate, I,m sure you will get loads of request s for advice and S&C can play a major part of pre-entry
Thanks. I was going to just delete my account and everything after your first reply to get rid of it but I’ll try work out how to edit it and I’ll start being more mindful of what I upload from my S&C notes. I’ll put up some periodisation stuff which helps over exercising people or people not doing enough. Thanks
 

Aerial

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It should be possible to edit it!! You certainly have knowledge that can help the lads prior entry, so keep posting mate, I,m sure you will get loads of request s for advice and S&C can play a major part of pre-entry
There’s a time limit on editing - I think you can only do edits for about a 10 minute window after the post first goes up.
 

Broadsword55

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There’s a time limit on editing - I think you can only do edits for about a 10 minute window after the post first goes up.
Ah well, I’ve reported it to have it taken down. I’ve got it in my notes so I’ll just put up the non steroid stuff at the start and none of the stuff about 40 commando and that should be it sorted. 10 minutes is quite annoying but I guess it’s not the kind of forum I’m used to
 

GreyWing

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Ah well, I’ve reported it to have it taken down. I’ve got it in my notes so I’ll just put up the non steroid stuff at the start and none of the stuff about 40 commando and that should be it sorted. 10 minutes is quite annoying but I guess it’s not the kind of forum I’m used to
It's a balance mate. What happens on some forums is that a user makes a post. Then 1 day later, they will go back and edit it to put links in or change what they wrote. These changes won't flag up like they would in a new post, so will often go unseen.

It's just a balance that we try to strike between that and no edits at all.
 

Broadsword55

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It's a balance mate. What happens on some forums is that a user makes a post. Then 1 day later, they will go back and edit it to put links in or change what they wrote. These changes won't flag up like they would in a new post, so will often go unseen.

It's just a balance that we try to strike between that and no edits at all.
Yeah I get that, only happened to me once but people completely change stuff and either market or make you look like an idiot. I kind of like the system here because it’s like archiving something that people can go look at in 10 years which can’t be changed but obviously a tad inconvenient if you’re not used to it. Thanks
 

GreyWing

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Yeah I get that, only happened to me once but people completely change stuff and either market or make you look like an idiot. I kind of like the system here because it’s like archiving something that people can go look at in 10 years which can’t be changed but obviously a tad inconvenient if you’re not used to it. Thanks
No problem mate. Moderators will always edit it for you too on request if it is something you really want changing.

@Chelonian @GreyWing @Johnny_Anonie @Caversham to name a few that are often online. Or you can always use the "contact us" option at the bottom of the page.
 

Chelonian

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Sometimes genuine errors creep into posts. Or someone posts something that they later regret.
If that happens please raise it as an Alert so that one of the mods can edit the post appropriately.

Edited to add: Beaten to it by GW.
 
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